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The Communication Process

A Lesson Proposal; Signature Assignment for EdX Instructional Design Models

The Communication Process

As a language learner and teacher, experience, education, and training have shown me that knowing and becoming familiar with the nature and scope of the communication is fundamental to become a better communicator of the target language.  This short lesson that could be covered in 20 minutes has two parts: (1) elements and types of communication and (2) the Transactional Communication Model and common barriers affecting it.

Goal of instruction: Introduce English language learners to the foundation of the communication process

Objective 1: Exhibit understanding of a message by paraphrasing and/or summarizing

Task A: 1. Students read a short article about the communication process. 2. They mark, highlight, or underline words, phrases, or sentences that they find meaningful. 3. Students share three most striking lines from the article.

Measurement 1: Students submit an explanation (2-3 sentences) for every striking point. This evaluation scheme looks into the depth of their explanation.

Objective 2: Prepare and outline coherent and succinct messages

Task B: 1. Students choose a section from a long article about the Transactional Communication Model. 2. After reading, they prepare to render a 30-second summary.

Measurement 2: Students submit their short summary through an online voice recording app. This evaluation scheme checks how well students organize ideas gathered from the given material.

Objective 3: Reflect on the different aspects affecting the communication process

Task C: 1. In 50-80 words, students write about the most valuable learning gain they acquired through this lesson. They may also focus their reflection on questions that they still have or link this lesson with a related educational material or personal experience. 2. They then add their reflection as a post to a class discussion thread.

Measurement 3: Students respond to their peers’ reflection through a forum.  This evaluation scheme weighs the scope and relevance of feedback students share through their responses.

Dick and Carey Model

Week 3 Output EdX Instructional Design Models

Video Transcript

Step 1: Instructional Goal In an adaptive school, the team must always take the time to ask the question: “Why are we doing this?” In UbD planning, we ask Essential Questions and lay out Enduring Understanding. Step 1 of Dick and Carey can be likened to how successful people always keep the end in mind. Looking back to my ADDIE map, the instructional goal I identified is to help learners develop and polish their communication and learning skills.

Step 2: Instructional Analysis Going back to the concepts of an adaptive school, this stage of the Dick and Carey model is synonymous to the question: “Why are we doing this, this way?” Course objectives must be based on who the learners are, what they can do, where I want to see them, and how I can best facilitate their learning process to achieve the goal that was identified earlier. An aspect of the goal is to get students become better communicators. Instruction and materials that I will prepare should introduce and practice effective listening and speaking skills.

Step 3: Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics In order to offer engaging lessons, students must be encouraged to take an active approach to learn. It is important that teachers and facilitators take the time to know more about who the students are as thinking and emotional individuals and that they are all unique. This step reminds me of a conversation I had with colleagues during lunch last week. They were trying to figure out what made a teacher tell students that their diagnostic exam was graded. I will have students share why they are taking the course and what they are expecting to gain from completing it.

Step 4: Writing Performance Objectives Every lesson counts. To make each truly count, objectives (why students should be learning it) must be clearly laid out. I wish to use here the given acronyms: CNbCR. CN (conditions) focuses on a description of the target skill identified. B (behavior) focuses on the target action, content, and/or concept. CR (criteria) focuses on a description of an acceptable performance of the skill identified earlier. For my course, students will be able to apply effectively one or two listening skills when they take notes of the given recorded lecture. When they share their reflection, students can then talk about the listening skills they focused on to complete the task.

Step 5: Developing Assessment Instruments Students not only need to know why they have the lessons shared, why they are completing a particular project, but also need to understand how their output will be evaluated. This is when rubrics are needed. Criteria and descriptors laid out in rubrics will guide students on what standards to meet, how they will achieve them through the project, what components they should complete, and what feedback should they expect from the facilitator or their teacher. My rubric may include a criterion on listening comprehension to check how much of the information shared did the students actually understand.

Step 6: Instructional Strategy This answers the question how the lesson will be presented. One of my favorite strategies is 10/2. After 10 minutes of instruction or work focus, the class pauses for two minutes to talk about what has transpired or to free write.

Step 7: Instructional Materials This stage is meant to determine the materials or resources students will have to complete the summative assessment. This could be a list of relevant video clips or reading materials. Effective instruction calls for decent amount of time dedicated to find the most useful resources out of the profusion of teaching and learning materials both printed and on different online pages.

Step 8: Formative Evaluation This step answers the need to pay close attention to the overall flow of the class. Are the students really working towards realizing goals set? Are students excited and engaged and getting more confident to complete the summative task successfully? A series of mini listening tests can become part of the formative process for a note-taking summative.

Step 9: Summative Evaluation Reflection, feedback, exit survey – these are only few of the recurring and familiar strategies to anchor and propel course revision. This step evaluates the overall success of the course so organizers could improve essential components and have it readier for the next season of teaching and learning.

The Dick and Carey Model sums up the essence of being a teacher, a learning coach, or a course facilitator. Perhaps, I met this model when I started teaching and did not care much to understand it as much as I went through each step to complete this task today. Writing the skeleton of the class or the course guide or syllabus appears more straightforward if viewed as a process, as steps to take one by one, instead of components or empty boxes and cells to complete. Going from one step to the next forces course creators to understand the reasons behind each step. Instead of addressing components separately, going from step 1 to 9, like ADDIE, emphasizes the relationships between components building unto each other to make learning meaningful.

You have just watched an interpretation of the Dick and Carey Model.  What examples do you have in mind to complete each step?  Please share your thoughts.


Bensound. (2018). Creative minds [Audio file]. Retrieved from

D’Angelo, T., Bunch, J.C., & Thoron, A. (2018). Instructional design using the Dick and Carey systems.  UF IFAS Extension. Retrieved from

Kurt, S. (2015). Dick and Carey instructional model. Educational Technology. Retrieved from

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A Course Plan – Using ADDIE and Brain Frames

Week 2 Output (EdX Instructional Design Models)

Instead of using mind mapping applications, I chose to complete the given assignment using Brain Frames by the Architects of Learning.  Notice the step by step completion of ADDIE as the main instructional design model used in this thinking map.  Notice how ideas are placed first before their relationships are traced.  I combined here the sequencing and categorizing frames.   In so doing, ideas about the future online course I will build are more organized and will surely stay in my mind way longer until I have to retrieve these thoughts again.  If bubbles and shapes will not show their overall flow and relationships, later on, it will be difficult to recall important components.

In Analysis, I answered questions on who will be my learners, what will they be learning in my course, and what materials will I be using.  I also thought of possible topics to include.  I included the key areas where I will look for more references and/or resources.

In Design, I thought of how a modular mode, a weekly coverage.  I thought that there should be a regular required task for students to complete.  This is to establish routine.  At the very start of the course, I should be sharing with students the final output they will be expected to complete.

In Development, I focused on the main documents to guide everyone involved in the course.  The language should be accessible by teachers and students to encourage independent learning.  The whole feedback loop should be visible and relevant to be meaningful and supportive.  Such quality will also keep everyone focused.

In Implementation, I wanted to highlight three important aspects – the level of questioning in class, the mode of presentation (always a combination of approaches), and the regular pacing that should be planned with students so they may take more responsibility and become active participants of the learning process.

In Evaluation, success of the course can be traced from the students’ overall performance.  Students should be given the opportunity to give their feedback to help improve the organization and presentation of the course.  The school administration can also help weigh its need, relevance, and contribution.

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